Some people have dark patches around the skin or have some areas of the skin which are darker than the rest of their skin. This condition is known as skin hyperpigmentation and can be caused by many factors. There are skin cells that produce melanin called melanocytes. It is melanin that determines the skin color. When there are normal levels of melanin in the body, the skin color is even throughout the skin. But when melanin is overproduced, it causes skin pigmentation in both children and adults. Here are the major causes of this skin condition.
Overexposure to the sun
One of the major causes of skin pigmentation is excessive exposure to the sunlight. When the melanocytes detect ultraviolet rays from the sun, they stimulate the production of melanin in order protect the skin from these harmful rays. This increases the levels of melanin in the body which leads to tanning, thereby causing hyperpigmentation and peeling of the skin. It also leads to the formation of age spots, liver spots or dark spots.
The other major reason behind skin pigmentation is hormone imbalance. An imbalance or change in the levels of hormones can result in the appearance of melasma or chloasma. Typically, these are dark spots that spread over a larger skin area. There are many conditions which can lead to these hormonal changes. The most common one is pregnancy which leads to a dramatic change in hormonal levels. Apart from that, slow metabolism, irregular menstruation and menopause could also cause changes in hormonal levels, resulting in hyperpigmentation.
Skin Disorders and Other Conditions
There are many skin disorders, conditions and problems which can all result in hyperpigmentation. Problems, such as eczema, acne and other related skin conditions, can lead to skin inflammation, leaving behind dark spots. Apart from that, bruises and cuts can damage the skin, and leave behind ugly scars that are of a different color from the rest of the body. Moreover, several deficiencies, gastrointestinal conditions and other diseases may also lead to this condition.
Some forms of medication, like birth control pills, often cause dark patches on the skin. In such cases, it is advisable to discontinue the use of those pills.
Skin pigmentation can be caused by many factors, as shown above. It is important to understand the causes of this condition so that you can try to prevent it. But if the condition persists, then you can always go for viable treatments and solutions.